Max Frisch’s admiration for the playwright Bertolt Brecht was an important stimulus in formulating his own dramatic theories. Frisch disagreed with Brecht’s theories in several ways. Unlike Brecht, Frisch was skeptical that the theater can bring about social and political change, but he did believe that it can change a person’s relationship to the world—it can make him more aware of himself and of the society in which he lives. Frisch was convinced of the power of the theater. In Sketchbook, 1946-1949, Frisch related how he was once sitting unobserved in an empty theater. He saw a workman come onto the stage and grumble. Then an actress walked across the stage and greeted the workman briefly. Because this very humdrum scene took place on the stage, its impact was greater than it would have been in ordinary life. To illustrate how the theater functions, Frisch used the analogy of an empty picture frame. If it is hung on the wall, it focuses a person’s attention on the wall for the first time and forces him to see it. Like the picture frame, the box stage focuses a person’s attention; it points out and demonstrates. Ordinary events are turned into exemplary ones on the stage.
Unlike Brecht, Frisch did not believe that the real world can be portrayed effectively on the stage; the stage can only show models of experience. In an early essay titled “Theater ohne Illusion” (1948; theater without illusion), Frisch praises Thornton Wilder for discarding realistic theater and stressing the theatrical again. According to Frisch, the theater should never try to create the illusion that it is real life on the stage. For this reason, Frisch used many alienation effects to break the suspense and to prevent the audience from thinking that it is seeing a “slice of life.”
In addition, Frisch, unlike Brecht, had no ideology to impart to his audience. His function as a dramatist, he said, is to raise questions, not provide answers. Frisch wanted to make people more aware, to provoke them into finding their own solutions to the problems that he depicted. An example of such provocation can be found in The Firebugs when Biedermann steps out of his role and addresses the members of the audience directly, asking them what they would have done in his place. Although Frisch was not convinced that the theater can bring about social change, he nevertheless thought that the author has a responsibility to address social and political questions. In an interview with Horst Bienek in 1961, Frisch criticized the Theater of the Absurd. If he were a dictator, he said, he would allow only the plays of Eugène Ionesco to be performed. Because such plays are fun to watch, they make the audience forget political conditions in the real world outside the theater. Frisch’s dramas focus mostly on personal questions, but some address social problems such as anti-Semitism and prejudice (Andorra) and the moral weakness of the middle class (The Firebugs). Yet even in those works that deal mostly with the individual, Frisch still criticizes modern society, especially for its hypocrisy and for the limits it places on the individual.
In most of Frisch’s dramas, the quest for identity is a central theme. Frisch believed that most people either invent roles for themselves or else have roles imposed on them by others. Such role-playing prevents people from growing and realizing their potential as human beings—the role reduces them to fixed and known entities, a theme that Frisch develops in particular in Andorra and Don Juan: Or, the Love of Geometry. Frisch shows how difficult it is to escape from roles. Because society wants to preserve the status quo, it is hostile to any notion of change; it expects people to conform to certain socially acceptable roles that consist for the most part of deadening routine. Frisch portrays those who conform to society without any struggle as smug and self-righteous (a good example of such a character is Biedermann in The Firebugs). Most of Frisch’s protagonists fight for the freedom to be themselves, but the social restrictions they confront are often so overwhelming that they are forced to capitulate.
Don Juan had its premiere on May 5, 1953, at the Zurich Schauspielhaus and at the Berlin Schillertheater. Don Juan appears in Frisch’s works for the first time in the play The Chinese Wall, where he protests against his literary portrayal as a seducer. In the play named for him, Don Juan is the polar opposite of the legendary Don Juan. Far from being the seducer, he is actually the seduced. The first three acts show how Don Juan is forced into the role of seducer; the last two, how, like Stiller in the novel I’m Not Stiller, he tries to escape from the image that people have formed of him.
To those familiar with the legend, the picture of Don Juan as the play opens is startling. Don Juan’s father, Tenorio, is worried about his son because, at the age of twenty, he avoids women. To try to remedy this, Tenorio sends Don Juan to a brothel; while there, however, Don Juan plays chess. Frisch’s Don Juan is an intellectual who loves geometry because it is clear, exact, and “manly.” Like Walter Faber in the novel Homo Faber, he distrusts feelings because they are too unpredictable and chaotic. Don Juan’s love of geometry is, however, responsible for his present involvement with Donna Anna. When he is sent to measure the walls of the enemy stronghold in Córdoba, he returns unharmed with the information, is named hero of Córdoba, and is given Donna Anna as his bride. Don Gonzalo, the commander, does not realize that Don Juan has used simple geometry to arrive at the measurements and has not exposed himself to danger.
The play opens on the night before Don Juan is to marry Donna Anna. The erotic festivities of this night stem from a pagan custom that the Christians have adopted. In the original custom, everyone was supposed to wear a mask. Through the power of love, the bride and groom could find each other despite the masks they were wearing. Because there were so many instances of mistaken identity, the custom was changed. Now the bride and groom do not wear masks because love can obviously err. Don Juan is drawn into the stifling eroticism of this night and sleeps with Donna Anna. He does not know that she is his bride because he has not met her before.
Don Juan’s experiences on this night make him suspicious of love. When he suddenly realizes at the wedding ceremony that he has slept with Donna Anna, he refuses to marry her. He cannot promise to be faithful to her because he thinks that people are interchangeable when the biological urge to mate is aroused. The cries of the peacock seeking a mate, which are a motif in the first part, stress this biological nature of love. Like most of Frisch’s intellectuals, Don Juan is basically self-centered. In fact, he holds a grudge against heaven for separating people into two sexes; he protests that the individual alone lacks wholeness.
It is not surprising that Don Juan repudiates love, because the society that surrounds him treats love cynically. Celestina, the brothel owner, turns the prostitute Miranda away because she has fallen in love with Don Juan: Such “sentimentality,” Celestina believes, is bad for business. Don Gonzalo and Donna Elvira, the parents of Donna Anna, supposedly have a model marriage, yet Donna Elvira thinks nothing of deceiving her husband by sleeping with Don Juan. When the captured Arab prince tells Don Gonzalo to take and enjoy his harem, Don Gonzalo curses the seventeen years of faithful marriage that prevent him from enjoying the proffered sensual delights. The only positive concept of love is held, ironically, by the prostitute Miranda, whose love for Don Juan remains constant.
Don Juan’s refusal to marry Donna Anna and the subsequent events give rise to his reputation as a seducer. To help him escape from the family that is thirsting for revenge, Donna Elvira gives Don Juan refuge in her room, where she seduces him. From her, Don Juan goes to Donna Inez. He is curious to see whether she will sleep with him even though she is engaged to his friend Don Roderigo. When she does, this seems to confirm his belief that love is indiscriminate and merely biological. At the end of act 3, Don Juan is surrounded by people whose deaths he has unwittingly caused: His father dies of a heart attack because of his son’s behavior, Donna Anna drowns herself because of Don Juan’s rejection, Don Roderigo kills himself because Don Juan has slept with his fiancé, and Don Juan unintentionally kills Don Gonzalo with his sword.
The fourth act takes place thirteen years later and depicts Don Juan’s descent into Hell, famous from the legend—but with a new twist. It is no longer an example of divine retribution but is actually staged by Don Juan himself to escape from his role as a seducer and from his financial problems. Don Juan seeks to persuade the bishop that his “descent into Hell” will provide the Church with proof of divine justice; the husbands of the seduced wives will have their revenge; and finally, youth will not be corrupted by following Don Juan’s example as a seducer. In return, Don Juan wants the Church to give him a cell in a monastery in which he can devote his time to his beloved geometry. Don Juan invites thirteen of the women he has seduced to witness the event, and arranges for Celestina to play the part of Don Gonzalo’s statue, which comes to life to punish him. Before the company arrives, Miranda, now the widow of the Duke of Ronda, offers Don Juan refuge in her castle, which he abruptly refuses. Don Juan’s plan goes awry because the bishop turns out to be a disguised husband in search of revenge. Even though he reveals Don Juan’s deception, the legend proves stronger than the truth—nobody believes that Don Juan has not been taken off to Hell. In the intermezzo that follows this act, Celestina tries to tell Donna Elvira (who is now a nun) about the role she played in the “descent into Hell,” but Donna Elvira prefers to believe in “miracles.”
In the last act, Don Juan has been forced to accept Miranda’s offer of...
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In the opening scene of Andorra, Barblin is whitewashing her father’s house in preparation for Saint George’s Day. Interrupted by an Andorran soldier who is attracted to her, she tries to ward him off by announcing that she is engaged. Father Benedict enters, and the conversation that ensues among the soldier, the priest, and Barblin reveals that an invasion by the anti-Semitic Blacks from across the border is imminent.
Next, the square of Andorra is seen. The carpenter and Can, the teacher, sitting outside the inn, haggle over the fee for an apprenticeship for the teacher’s foster son Andri, thought to be a Jew saved by the teacher from the Blacks. The carpenter, sensing Andri’s keen interest in carpentry and the teacher’s anxiety about finding a suitable position for his son, demands an exorbitant sum and suggests that Andri become a stockbroker, something that is, after all, “in his blood.” The teacher, determined to scrape together the money Andri needs, is joined by the innkeeper, who proceeds to exploit Can’s predicament by offering to buy his land.
During most of scene 1, the kitchen boy Andri is seen feeding his tips into the jukebox located on the forestage. A carefree youth, he is exuberant about his secret engagement to Barblin and the prospect of becoming a carpenter. Soon thereafter, however, the soldier Peider brags about his own bravery, trips Andri, and calls him a cowardly Jew.
Scene 2 takes place on the threshold outside Barblin’s room. Her fiancé Andri wonders aloud whether it is true that he is different from everyone else. He feels no different but is accused of having no feelings and of being lecherous, greedy, and cowardly. In the next scene, Andri and Fedri, another carpentry apprentice, are in the carpenter’s shop, each with a finished chair. The carpenter, intent upon finding fault with Andri’s workmanship, pulls all four legs out of Fedri’s chair, throws the debris at Andri’s feet, and chastises him for his alleged failure to mortise his first chair, knowing all the while that it is Fedri’s chair he is destroying. Fedri watches silently as Andri is given a new job, supposedly more suitable for a Jew: that of a salesman.
Shortly thereafter, Andri learns from the doctor that Can, his father, now a heavy-drinking cynic, was once a young man with high ideals. Nicknamed the Bull, he was known to tear up schoolbooks that contained lies. The doctor, well-traveled but a failure in his profession, launches into a vicious, bitter attack on the Jews of the world, ignorant of Andri’s Jewish identity. Wherever he went, he laments, he found Jews already there, occupying all the university chairs. Informed that Andri is a Jew, he quickly adds: “I was joking—of course, they can’t take a joke. . . . Did anyone ever meet a Jew who could take a joke?”
At dinner, Andri reveals that Barblin and he have loved each other ever since they were children and have resolved to get married. Believing that they were brother and sister, they had contemplated poisoning themselves, until their mother assured them that Andri was adopted. Can, faced with the prospect of incest caused by his own duplicity, “rises like a prisoner upon whom sentence has been passed,” immediately and emphatically rejects Andri as a suitor, without giving any reason, and leaves the room to find solace in the inn. Barblin runs off, threatening to kill herself, her mother suspects that Can is jealous,...
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