System of Government in the Philippines During Essay Sample
During the Spanish colonisation in the Philippines. the authorities was composed of two subdivisions. the executive and the judicial.
There was no legislative subdivision on that clip since the Torahs of the islands were coming from Spain. The lone Torahs created in the Philippines are those who were ordered by the Governor General. The authorities on that clip was lead by the Governor General. He was considered as the representative of Spain and the King himself. He is the highest officer in the island and responsible for implementing Torahs from the female parent state. He besides has the power to name or alleviate officer in the authorities or priest in the parish. except with those personally appointed by the male monarch of Spain. The states in the island were called as “Encomienda” and were governed by the “Encomienderos” . subsequently they were replaced by the “Alcalde Mayor” “Alcalde Mayor” had both the executive and judicial power. He had besides given the right to roll up revenue enhancements. The “Alcalde Mayor” was besides allowed to set up a concern because of its limited wage. In 1886. their executive power was abolished but their judicial powers remain.
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Small towns were governed by the “gobernadorcillo” . Under his authorization were one constabulary head and the lower authorities employees from which he had legal power. “Gobernadorcillo” were elected by the married people but subsequently a “gobernadorcillo” was chosen by those surpassing in the place as his replacing. The metropolis was governed by two city managers. 12 councilors and a constabulary head. a secretary and other employees. The metropolis is called as “Ayuntamiento” . The “Encomienda” system was implemented. It is a system from which the male monarch has the right to reassign the authorization of a peculiar land to any Spanish person or establishment. Those single who posses the right of “encomienda” was called as “Encomiendero” .
An “Encomiendero” has authorization to roll up revenue enhancements from the people in his legal power. He besides has the responsibility to care and look for the benefits of those citizens. Unfortunately. the “encomienda” system was misused by some “encomienderos” . A batch of them use the “encomienda” for their ain involvement. They tend to mistreat their power. roll uping revenue enhancements more than the existent revenue enhancement value. The “encomiendero’s” abuse their powers which sometimes made people rebellions against them. The “encomienda” system created hinderances for the economic development of the multitudes. This doing the elect richer and doing the economic state of affairs of the bulk under developed. Although the “encomienda” system is designed for administration. its execution gives negative effects to the people from which the “encomienderos” abuse their power against the people. to whom they are bound to regulate. The authorities during the American government
After the Spaniards capitulated to them in the Battle of Manila on August 13. 1898. the winning Americans established the Military Government on August 14. This authorities which was run by military generals appointed by the American president exercised all powers of the authorities until the war was declared by the Americans to hold ended until July 1901. following the gaining control of President Emilio Aguinaldo. On July 4. 1901. upon the recommendation of the Second Philippine Commission headed by William Taft. the American governments established the civil authorities that took over the maps of the military authorities. The president of the Filipino Commission became civil governor in countries already pacified under the American military regulation. The Civil Governor ( the rubric was subsequently changed to Governor-General in 1905 ) besides exercised legislative powers while staying as president of the Filipino Commission. the lawmaking organic structure of the authorities up to 1907.
Upon the creative activity of the Philippine Assembly that served as the lower house. the Filipino Commission became the upper house of the legislative subdivision from 1907 to 1916. The first free national elections in the Philippines were held for the members of the Philippine Assembly who were all Filipinos where Sergio Osmena served as Speaker of the Assembly. With the transition of the Spooner Amendment in 1916. the Filipino Commission and Philippine Assembly gave manner to an all Filipino Legislature. The Filipino Legislature had two houses – the Senate and the House of Representatives. Manuel Quezon was elected President of the Senate and Osmena once more became Speaker of the House. Despite the turning engagement of the civil authorities there were still restrictions. The American governor-general was still the power behind the authorities and. together with the American president could blackball any jurisprudence passed by the Filipino Legislature.
The U. S. Congress regulated Philippine trade and the American Supreme Court could overturn the determinations of the Philippine Supreme Court. Pursuant to the commissariats of the Tydings-McDuffie Law passed by the U. S. Congress. the Commonwealth Government was established to win American Insular Government in the Philippines. Following the first national elections under the 1935 Constitution. the Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on November 15. 1935. with Quezon as president and Osmena as frailty president. The Commonwealth Government was a ten-year transitory authorities which gave Filipinos a opportunity to turn out to the Americans their capableness preparedness in managing their ain authorities.
If proven capable the independency of the Philippines would be proclaimed upon the termination of the said period. The Commonwealth was a semi-independent or independent authorities of the Filipinos under American tuition. It was republican in signifier under the presidential type. The legislative power was vested in a bicameral Congress that was divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives. It had its ain system of judicial tribunals with the Supreme Court on top of the ladder. When the Second World War broke out. the Commonwealth Government became a government-in-exile administrating the personal businesss of the Philippines across the ocean from the United States. The Commonwealth functionaries. headed by President Quezon. had to fly at that place to the Nipponese business of the state. The Nipponese business
The Nipponese military governments instantly began forming a new authorities construction in the Philippines. Although the Japanese had promised independency for the islands after business. they ab initio organized a Council of State through which they directed civil personal businesss until October 1943. when they declared the Philippines an independent democracy. Most of the Philippine elite. with a few noteworthy exclusions. served under the Japanese. Filipino coaction in Japanese-sponsored political establishments – which subsequently became a major domestic political issue-was motivated by several considerations. Among them was the attempt to protect the people from the abrasiveness of Nipponese regulation ( an attempt that Quezon himself had advocated ) . protection of household and personal involvements. and a belief that Filipino patriotism would be advanced by solidarity with fellow Asians.
Many collaborated to go through information to the Allies. The Japanese-sponsored democracy headed by President Jose P. Laurel proved to be unpopular. Nipponese business of the Philippines was opposed by progressively effectual resistance and guerilla activity that finally reached large-scale proportions. Postwar probes showed that about 260. 000 people were in guerilla organisations and that members of the anti-Japanese resistance were even more legion. Their effectivity was such that by the terminal of the war. Japan controlled merely 12 of the 48 states. One major opposition group in the Central Luzon country was furnished by the Huks. Hukbalahap ( Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon ) . or the People’s Anti-Japanese Army organized in early 1942 under the leading of Luis Taruc. a communist party member since 1939. The Huks armed some 30. 000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon. Other guerrilla units were attached to the SWPA. and were active throughout the archipelago.
End of the Nipponese business
On October 20. 1944. MacArthur’s Allied Forces landed on the island of Leyte accompanied by Osmena. who had succeeded to the commonwealth presidential term upon the decease of Quezon on August 1. 1944. Landings so followed on the island of Mindoro and around the Lingayen Gulf on the west side of Luzon. and the push toward Manila was initiated. The Commonwealth of the Philippines was restored. Contending was ferocious. peculiarly in the mountains of northern Luzon. where Nipponese military personnels had retreated. and in Manila. where they put up a last-ditch opposition.
The Philippine Commonwealth military personnels and the recognized guerilla combatant units rose up everyplace for the concluding offense. Contending continued until Japan’s formal resignation on September 2. 1945. The Philippines had suffered great loss of life and enormous physical devastation by the clip the war was over. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed. a big proportion during the concluding months of the war. and Manila was extensively damaged. First Philippine Republic
21 January 1899| The Malolos Constitution was ratified during a general assembly of Congress. and the first Council of Government of the First Philippine Republic was created.
From January 21. 1899 to May 7. 1899. with Apolinario Mabini as President of the Cabinet ( i. e. Prime Minister ) . Gracio Gonzaga served as the Secretary of Public Welfare. which included the transit and communications portfolio. | 07 May 1899 to 13 November 1899| When Mabini was replaced by Pedro Paterno as President of the Cabinet. among the seven sections set up was the Communicaciones Y Obras PublicasA? ( i. e. the Communications and Public Works Department ) . Maximo Paterno was appointed as Secretary of Public Works and Communications. Since so. Public Works. Transportation. and Communications have been grouped into one section. | Independent Philippines and the Third Republic ( 1946-1972 )
In April 1946. elections were held. Despite the fact that the Democratic Alliance won the election. they were non allowed to take their seats under the stalking-horse that force had been used to pull strings the elections. The United States withdrew its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4. 1946. as scheduled. Manuel Roxas ( Liberal Party ) . holding been inaugurated every bit President as scheduled. on July 4. 1946 before the granting of independency. strengthened political and economic ties with the United States in the controversial Philippine-US Trade Act. In Mar. . 1947. the Philippines and the United States signed a military aid treaty ( since renewed ) which allowed the US to take part every bit in the development of the country’s natural resources—and rented sites for 23 military bases to the US for 99 old ages ( a later understanding reduced the period to 25 old ages get downing 1967 ) . These bases would subsequently be used to establish operations in the countries of Korea. China. Vietnam. and Indonesia. During the Roxas disposal. a general amnesty was granted for those who had worked together with the Nipponese piece at the same clip the Huks were declared illegal.
His disposal ended prematurely when he died of bosom onslaught April 15. 1948 while at the US Air Force Base in Pampanga. Vice President Elpidio Quirino ( Liberal Party. henceforth referred to as LP ) was sworn in as President after the decease of Roxas in April 1948. He ran for election in November 1949 against Jose P. Laurel ( Nacionalista Party. henceforth referred to as NP ) and won his ain four-year term. During this clip. the CIA under the leading of Lt. Col. Edward G. Lansdale was engaged in paramilitary and psychological warfare operations with the end to keep backthe Huk Movement. Among the steps which were undertaken were psyops-campaigns which demoralized the superstitious notion of many Filipinos and Acts of the Apostless of force by authorities soldiers which were disguised as Huks. By 1950. the U. S. had provided the Filipino military with supplies and equipment deserving $ 200 million dollars.
The immense undertaking of retracing the war-worn state was complicated by the activities in cardinal Luzon of the Communist-dominated Hukbalahap guerillas ( Huks ) . who resorted to panic and force in their attempts to achieve land reform and derive political power. They were eventually brought under control ( 1954 ) after a dynamic onslaught introduced by the curate of national defence. Ramon Magsaysay. By that clip Magsaysay was president of the state. holding defeated Quirino in Nov. . 1953. His run was massively supported by the CIA. both financially and through practical aid in discrediting his political enemies. He had promised sweeping economic alterations. and he did do advancement in land reform. opening new colonies outside crowded Luzon Island. His decease in an aeroplane clang in Mar. . 1957. was a serious blow to national morale. Vice President Carlos P. Garcia succeeded him and won a full term as president in the elections of Nov. . 1957. In foreign personal businesss. the Philippines preserved a steadfast anti-Communist policy and joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization in 1954.
There were troubles with the United States over American military installings in the islands. and. in malice of formal acknowledgment ( 1956 ) of full Philippine sovereignty over these bases. tensenesss increased until some of the bases were dismantled ( 1959 ) and the 99-year rental period was reduced. The United States rejected Philippine fiscal claims and jutting trade alterations. Filipino resistance to Garcia on issues of authorities corruptness and anti-Americanism led. in June. 1959. to the brotherhood of the Liberal and Progressive parties. led by Vice President Diosdado Macapagal. the Liberal party leader. who succeeded Garcia as president in the 1961 elections. Macapagal’s disposal was marked by attempts to battle the climb rise that had plagued the democracy since its birth ; by attempted confederations with adjacent states ; and by a territorial statement with Britain over North Borneo ( subsequently Sabah ) . which Macapagal claimed had been leased and non sold to the British North Borneo Company in 1878.
The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor. Domestic materials and locally produced goods, and adopt measures that help make them competitive. Sec. 13 The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity. Sec. 14 The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals, managers, high -level technical manpower and skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be remoter by the State.
The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate Its transfer for the national benefit. The practice of all professions In the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens, save in cases prescribed by law. Sec. 15 The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for social Justice and economic development. Sec. 16 The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations.
Government-owned or controlled corporations ay be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability. Sec. 17 In times of national emergency, when the public interest so requires, the State may, during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by It, temporarily take over or direct the operation of any private owned public utility or business affected with public interest. Sec. 8 The State may, in the interest of national welfare or defense, establish and operate vital Industries and, upon payment of Just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government Article XII, Sections 12 to 22 of the charter also provides additional rules in the field and trade and production, and the practice of professions of individuals. The emphasis Is to give priority and opportunity to Filipinos. Sec. 19 The State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires.
No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. Sec. 20 The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary author, the members of whose governing board must be natural-burn Filipino tizzies, of known probity, integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall come from private sector, They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may be prescribed by law. The authority shall provide policy direction In the areas of money, banking, and credit.
It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions. Until the Congress otherwise provides, the Central Bank of the Philippines, operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority. Sec. 21 Foreign loans may only be Incurred In accordance with law and the regulation of the monetary authority.
Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public. I OFF considered inimical to the National interest and subject to criminal and civil sanctions, as may be provided by law. Art. XSL Sec 12-22 SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS As indicated in the Bill of Rights, the priority of the state the welfare of the people. Hush Article XIII, Sections 1 & 2 of the Constitution specifically deals with this Issue. On the highest priority in enacting laws, the state provide, thus: Sec. The congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. Or this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use and disposition of property and its increment. Sec. 2 The promotion of social Justice shall include the ointment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance Art. XIII Sec. & 2 SECTOR EMPHASIS Labor Full protection to labor and promotion of full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all is embodied in Article XIII, Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unrecognized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humans’ conditions of work, and a living wage.
They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their right and benefits as may be provided by law. The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in setting disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace. The State shall regulate the relations between worker and employers, recognizing the eight of labor to its Just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns on investments, and to expansion and growth.
Art. XIII Sec. 3 Vocabulary Words * Trade Policy – laws related to the exchange of goods or services involved in international trade including taxes, subsidies, and import/export regulations. * Production – the creation of value or wealth by producing goods and services. Trade – the business of buying and selling commodities; commerce. * Reciprocity – a mutual or cooperative interchange of favors or privileges, Congress – a formal assembly of representatives, as of various nations, to discuss problems. Compensation – something, such as money, given or received as payment or reparation, as for a service or loss. * Monopolies – exclusive control by one group of the means of producing or selling commodity or service. * Monetary authority – is a generic term in finance and economics for the entity Inch controls the money supply of a given currency, and has the right to set interest rates, and other parameters which control the cost and availability of money. * Social Justice – is Justice exercised within a society, particularly as it is applied to ND among the various social classes of a society. Human rights – are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. * Preferential – manifesting or originating from partiality or preference.