1. Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, et al. (2006) Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet367: 1521–1532 [PubMed]
2. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Urban JF Jr, Thompson R, Weinstock JV (2005) Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn's disease. Gut 200554: 87–90 [PMC free article][PubMed]
3. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Urban JF Jr, Thompson RA, Weinstock JV (2005) Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2005128: 825–832 [PubMed]
4. Rodrigues LC, Newcombe PJ, Cunha SS, Alcantara-Neves NM, Genser B, et al. (2008) Early infection with Trichuris trichiura and allergen skin test reactivity in later childhood. Clin Exp Allergy38: 1769–1177 [PubMed]
5. Endara P, Vaca M, Chico ME, Erazo S, Oviedo G, et al. (2010) Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity. Clin Exp Allergy40: 1669–1677 [PMC free article][PubMed]
6. MacDonald TT, Choy MY, Spencer J, Richman PI, Diss T, et al. (1991) Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the caecum in children with the Trichuris dysentery syndrome. J Clin Pathol44: 194–199 [PMC free article][PubMed]
7. Figueiredo CA, Barreto ML, Rodrigues LC, Cooper PJ, Silva NB, et al. (2010) Chronic intestinal helminth infections are associated with immune hyporesponsiveness and induction of a regulatory network. Infect Immun78: 3160–3167 [PMC free article][PubMed]
8. Reina Ortiz M, Schreiber F, Benitez S, Broncano N, Chico ME, et al. (2011) Effects of chronic ascariasis and trichuriasis on cytokine production and gene expression in human blood: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis5: e1157. [PMC free article][PubMed]
9. Young VB (2012) The intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol28: 63–69 [PMC free article][PubMed]
10. Kau AL, Ahern PP, Griffin NW, Goodman AL, Gordon JI (2011) Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system. Nature474: 327–336 [PMC free article][PubMed]
11. Li RW, Wu S, Li W, Huang Y, Gasbarre LC (2011) Metagenome plasticity of the bovine abomasal microbiota in immune animals in response to Ostertagia ostertagi infection. PLoS One6: e24417. [PMC free article][PubMed]
12. Li RW, Wu S, Li W, Navarro K, Couch RD, et al. (2012) Alterations in the Porcine Colon Microbiota Induced by the Gastrointestinal Nematode Trichuris suis. Infect Immun80: 2150–2157 [PMC free article][PubMed]
13. Hayes KS, Bancroft AJ, Goldrick M, Portsmouth C, Roberts IS, et al. (2010) Exploitation of the intestinal microflora by the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris. Science328: 1391–1394 [PMC free article][PubMed]
14. Wu S, Li RW, Li W, Beshah E, Dawson HD, et al. (2012) Worm Burden-Dependent Disruption of the Porcine Colon Microbiota by Trichuris suis Infection. PLoS One7: e35470. [PMC free article][PubMed]
15. Broadhurst MJ, Ardeshir A, Kanwar B, Mirpuri J, Gundra UM, et al. (2012) Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon. PLoS Pathog. 8: e1003000 [PMC free article][PubMed]
16. Moncayo AL, Vaca M, Erazo S, Oviedo G, Rodriguez A, et al. (2008) Impact of long-term treatment with ivermectin on geohelminth infections in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. PLoS Negl Trop Dis2: e293. [PMC free article][PubMed]
17. Suputtamongkol Y, Premasathian N, Bhumimuang K, Waywa D, Nilganuwong S, et al. (2011) Efficacy and safety of single and double doses of ivermectin versus 7-day high dose albendazole for chronic strongyloidiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis25: e1044. [PMC free article][PubMed]
18. Olsen A (2007) Efficacy and safety of drug combinations in the treatment of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg101: 747–58 [PubMed]
19. Steinmann P, Utzinger J, Du ZW, Jiang JY, Chen JX, et al. (2011) Efficacy of single-dose and triple-dose albendazole and mebendazole against soil-transmitted helminths and Taenia spp.: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One6: e25003. [PMC free article][PubMed]
20. WHO (1985) Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPI) applicable to primary health care (PHC) services. WHO: Geneva.
21. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, et al. (2009) Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 200975: 7537–7541 [PMC free article][PubMed]
22. Quince C, Lanzen A, Davenport RJ, Turnbaugh PJ (2011) Removing noise from pyrosequenced amplicons. BMC Bioinformatics12: 38. [PMC free article][PubMed]
23. NCBI resource coordinators et al (2013) Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic Acids Res41: D8–D20 [PMC free article][PubMed]
24. Walker AW, Ince J, Duncan SH, Webster LM, Holtrop G, et al. (2011) Dominant and diet-responsive groups of bacteria within the human colonic microbiota. ISME J5: 220–230 [PMC free article][PubMed]
25. Sokol H, Pigneur B, Watterlot L, Lakhdari O, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, et al. (2008) Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A105: 16731–16736 [PMC free article][PubMed]
26. Bryant MP, Small N (1956) Characteristics of two new genera of anaerobic curved rods isolated from the rumen of cattle. J Bacteriol72: 22–26 [PMC free article][PubMed]
27. Crowther JS (1971) Sarcina ventriculi in human faeces. J Med Microbiol4: 343–350 [PubMed]
28. Costello EK, Lauber CL, Hamady M, Fierer N, Gordon JI, et al. (2009) Bacterial community variation in human body habitats across space and time. Science326: 1694–1697 [PMC free article][PubMed]
29. Human Microbiome Project Consortium (2012) Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature486: 207–214 [PMC free article][PubMed]
30. Shin JL, Gardiner GW, Deitel W, Kandel G (2004) Does whipworm increase the pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni? A clinical correlate of an experimental observation. Can J Gastroenterol18: 175–7 [PubMed]
31. Mansfield LS, Gauthier DT, Abner SR, Jones KM, Wilder SR, et al. (2003) Enhancement of disease and pathology by synergy of Trichuris suis and Campylobacter jejuni in the colon of immunologically naive swine. Am J Trop Med Hyg68: 70–80 [PubMed]
32. Bancroft AJ, Hayes KS, Grencis RK (2012) Life on the edge: the balance between macrofauna, microflora and host immunity. Trends Parasitol28: 93–98 [PubMed]
33. Walk ST, Blum AM, Ewing SA, Weinstock JV, Young VB (2010) Alteration of the murine gut microbiota during infection with the parasitic helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Inflamm Bowel Dis
Kwame Donkor, MD Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View Internal Medicine, University of California Los Angeles Medical Center
Kwame Donkor, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Scott Lundberg, MD Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Departments of Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Olive View Medical Center
Scott Lundberg, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physicians, Society of General Internal Medicine, Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Specialty Editor Board
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference
Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.
Mark L Plaster, MD, JD Executive Editor, Emergency Physicians Monthly
Mark L Plaster, MD, JD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians
Disclosure: Received ownership interest from M L Plaster Publishing Co LLC for management position.
Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, University of South Carolina School of Medicine; Attending Physician, Clinical Instructor, Compliance Officer, Department of Emergency Medicine, Palmetto Richland Hospital
Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Columbia Medical Society, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, South Carolina College of Emergency Physicians, South Carolina Medical Association
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Employed contractor - Chief Editor for Medscape.
Mark Louden, MD Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine
Mark Louden, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the medical review of this article by Joseph U Becker, MD.
The authors and editors of Medscape Reference also gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, Eric L Weiss, MD, to the development and writing of this article.